Mobility Lab http://mobilitylab.org Moving People... Instead of Just Cars Wed, 07 Dec 2016 21:49:20 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Car-free in Cleveland: Letting go of the wheel of the personal vehicle http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/06/car-free-in-cleveland-letting-go-of-the-wheel-of-the-personal-vehicle/ http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/06/car-free-in-cleveland-letting-go-of-the-wheel-of-the-personal-vehicle/#respond Tue, 06 Dec 2016 17:53:05 +0000 http://mobilitylab.org/?p=19713 For some in Cleveland, the cost of having a car is just too high to justify or afford, an inefficient mode of transportation that threatens the environment. … In the Cleveland metro, 5.8 percent of people bike, walk or take public transit to work, according to census data. And USA Today this year ranked Cleveland... Read more »

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For some in Cleveland, the cost of having a car is just too high to justify or afford, an inefficient mode of transportation that threatens the environment.

… In the Cleveland metro, 5.8 percent of people bike, walk or take public transit to work, according to census data. And USA Today this year ranked Cleveland as the best U.S. city in which to be car-free.

“There’s no real disadvantage to me,” said one car-free resident. “Waiting a couple minutes for a Lyft is easy. People think those are expensive options, but not when you’re saving over $8,500 a year by not owning a car!”

Read the complete article at cleveland.com

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Virginia’s new Capital Trail has brought biking, business to Richmond and historic communities http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/06/virginias-new-capital-trail-brought-biking-business-richmond-historic-communities/ http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/06/virginias-new-capital-trail-brought-biking-business-richmond-historic-communities/#comments Tue, 06 Dec 2016 17:05:24 +0000 http://mobilitylab.org/?p=19695 Stretching between Richmond and Jamestown, the Virginia Capital Trail is a powerful example of how bike and pedestrian infrastructure can encourage economic growth and sustainable living in diverse communities. The 55-mile paved, multi-use path dances along historic Route 5, connecting small towns, bucolic farmland, historic sites, and high-rise apartments. First proposed in the 1990’s, groundwork... Read more »

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Stretching between Richmond and Jamestown, the Virginia Capital Trail is a powerful example of how bike and pedestrian infrastructure can encourage economic growth and sustainable living in diverse communities. The 55-mile paved, multi-use path dances along historic Route 5, connecting small towns, bucolic farmland, historic sites, and high-rise apartments.

First proposed in the 1990’s, groundwork for the trail began in 2003 when Virginia Secretary of Transportation Whitt Clement made the trail a priority. The following year he helped found the Virginia Capital Trail Foundation – the non-profit that manages and promotes the trail – and in 2005 VDOT broke ground at Jamestown. Since its completion in October 2015, the Virginia Capital Trail has provided more than just a safe place to ride, walk, and run: it is also quietly changing the life and the economies of the communities that it passes through.

va-cap-trail

Map of the Virginia Capital Trail, via Terrain360. Click to see a trail-level view of the route.

No place is that more evident than in Richmond, Va., where the trail is helping power that city’s revitalization. Beth Weisbrod, executive director of the Capital Trail Foundation (based in Richmond), sees the trail as a major economic engine for the city, citing packaging company WestRock’s 2006 decision to move to downtown as based partly on the then-incomplete trail. She also pointed out that smaller businesses have benefited from it as well. “When the trail opened,” Weisbrod said, “there was no place to rent a bike in Richmond. Now there are at least three.”

One of those places is The Kickstand, a non-profit founded by the Richmond Cycling Corps that advertises itself as “the easiest (and coolest) way to get on a bike and enjoy the Virginia Capital Trail.” Opened in July, The Kickstand does more than rent bikes – it also teaches kids from low-income households how to bike and fix bikes. Those students are then employed as mechanics for Kickstand.

To Max Hepp-Buchanan, Director of Bike Walk-RVA, the trail is both a cause and an effect of increased cycling in Richmond. “I think it’s done a great job generating excitement around biking and walking” he said. “Once the snowball starts rolling, it just keeps getting bigger.” The stats from Richmond are certainly not small. The city has nearly doubled its bike infrastructure in the past three years, launched a bikeshare program, and hosted the UCI World Cycling Championships.

Furthermore, the trail has served as an anchor for new businesses. “Stone Brewing is one of the biggest examples,” Hepp-Buchanan said. “They are literally building their bistro on top of the trail.” While not all recent economic development can be attributed to the trail, Hepp-Buchanan argues that it has helped make Richmond an attractive place for corporations like Carmax, which recently moved downtown. “You can’t deny that having the Capital Trail right there is one of the biggest reasons why a company like that would locate downtown,” he said.

Cul's and bicycling patrons

Cul’s Courthouse Grille in Charles City, mere feet from the Capital Trail

The trail is also making an impact outside of Richmond. There is no better place to see that benefit than at Cul’s Courthouse Grille, a charming restaurant managed by mother-and-son team Bonnie Whittaker and Cullen Jenkins. Cul’s opened seven years ago when Whittaker, recently retired, decided to create a space for community gatherings near the historic Charles City Courthouse. Although Cullen stresses that Cul’s focuses on the community, not “dollars and cents,” it is impossible to ignore the business the trail has brought. “We’ve just tried to hold on and do the best we can,” Cullen said. “Recently, Channel 12 did a nice piece on the impact that the trail has had on small business, and they focused on us. My mom said that [business grew] by 30 percent in the interview, but she meant to say 300 percent.”

clip_ins_signThe increase in customers has meant more than just money for the restaurant. “We’ve been able to hire 10 folks because we needed them for the business,” Cullen said. Ten jobs might not seem like many, but in a small community like Charles City County (population 7,000), they make a huge difference. “These women are holding their families together with the jobs they have here,” Cullen said. “We can give someone a decent living wage where they can pay their bills and have a couple of bucks left over to improve their quality of life.”

Cul’s isn’t the only business to capitalize on the trail. Nearby Shirley Plantation recently added a large dining room to its outbuildings, placing in front of it a chalkboard sign reading “Welcome Cyclists: Please remove your clip-ins. Thank you!” Closer to Cul’s, rumor is that an old schoolhouse is being rehabilitated into a coffeehouse. And according to Beth Weisbrod, the Capital Trail Foundation is planning a connector trail to the Blue Heron Restaurant, another local eatery slightly off Route 5.

The money and cyclists flowing along the Capital Trail come from all over the world. Rich Thompson is a staff member at the College of William and Mary, where he helps lead the College’s Bike Alliance. (Full disclosure – the author was a founding member of the Alliance.) A regular cyclist on the trail, Thompson has met folks from D.C. and farther.

“I recently ran into a son and mother cyclist from Germany and Great Britain,” Thompson said. “They were vacationing here and biking in Surrey and Isle of Wight County,” and told him that they were planning on riding the trail later.

One of forces driving this tourism is the ever-expanding number of companies offering bike tours of the Capital Trail, including Road-Tested Tours, Carolina Tailwinds, Trek Travel, and Vermont Tours. Additionally, the Williamsburg Winery has added weekly 40-mile bike rides to its list of offerings, and Cullen Jenkins, for his part, is renting bikes out to Cul’s customers.

The market isn’t saturated yet either. Jennifer Billstrom is the founder of Velo Girl Rides, a North Carolina-based touring company that hopes to launch a Capital Trail tour. “The unique thing about the Capital Trail, in my opinion, is that it is fairly flat, and it is fairly doable by anyone. And it’s also just a ribbon that runs through a very rich historical area. So using this can be an educational experience … that engages people both physically and with a history lesson, and that’s very unique,” she said.

If other examples hold true, the Capital Trail is only beginning to spark growth around it. Wendy Lyman would know: as the owner of the cyclist-oriented Swamp Rabbit Inn in Greenville, South Carolina, she has seen her region’s Swamp Rabbit Trail revitalize entire towns along its route. She recently traveled up to visit the Capital Trail, and saw ample opportunity for future growth. “I was really impressed with it” she said. “That midpoint destination hub – there’s a lot of development opportunities there, and I think that would make that trail even more vibrant.”

She has observed this type of development before – the trail is built, several businesses take off, more entrepreneurs follow, local residents discover new ways to use the trail, and a new economic and transportation ecosystem is built. The Capital Trail isn’t at that point yet, but with 550,000 trips along the trail last year, that type of development is likely. The question isn’t a matter of if, but when.

Stay tuned for part two, which will explore the increase in biking that the Virginia Capital Trail is generating in adjacent communities.

Photos: Top, the VA Capital Trail as it approaches downtown Richmond along the James River (Al Covey/VDOT, Flickr, Creative Commons). Middle, the Bike Alliance at Cul’s Courthouse Grille (Bill Horacio). Lower, a chalkboard sign for bicyclists at  Shirley Plantation (Rich Thompson).

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How Vancouver became North America’s car-free capital http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/06/how-vancouver-became-north-america-s-car-free-capital/ http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/06/how-vancouver-became-north-america-s-car-free-capital/#respond Tue, 06 Dec 2016 16:04:08 +0000 http://mobilitylab.org/?p=19705 As of 2015, half of all trips within Vancouver’s city limits are taken on foot, bike, or transit—a goal the city had hoped to reach by 2020. Vancouver’s “active transit” success is the subject of a new short documentary by STREETFILMS. It all began back in the late 1960s, says the city’s former chief planner (and urban-Twitter celeb) Brent... Read more »

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As of 2015, half of all trips within Vancouver’s city limits are taken on foot, bike, or transit—a goal the city had hoped to reach by 2020. Vancouver’s “active transit” success is the subject of a new short documentary by STREETFILMS.

It all began back in the late 1960s, says the city’s former chief planner (and urban-Twitter celeb) Brent Toderian, when residents rejected a proposed highway that would have torn up the dense urban core and separated it from its famous waterfront. Vancouver is still the only major North American city without a freeway running through it.

Read the complete article at CityLab

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The case for long-term TDM programs http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/05/case-long-term-tdm-programs/ http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/05/case-long-term-tdm-programs/#comments Mon, 05 Dec 2016 17:18:07 +0000 http://mobilitylab.org/?p=19682 As transportation demand management professionals, we know the drill once winter fades and spring is in sight: we gear up for warm weather active transportation challenges to engage residents, visitors, and employees. And while these annual events and challenges are great ways to share a dedicated message and increase the visibility of transportation options, they... Read more »

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As transportation demand management professionals, we know the drill once winter fades and spring is in sight: we gear up for warm weather active transportation challenges to engage residents, visitors, and employees. And while these annual events and challenges are great ways to share a dedicated message and increase the visibility of transportation options, they don’t exactly support sustained mode shift. If cities want to experience behavior change and see a shift from single-occupancy vehicles to other sustainable modes, TDM agencies must implement long-term programs with achievable actions, real results, and ultimately, behavior change.

One of the fundamental concepts of behavior change, also known as community-based social marketing, or CBSM, is to acknowledge an individual’s self-perception and to uncover the barrier that causes someone to take a certain course of action, like driving alone. CBSM requires strategies to be built, piloted and implemented. However, most short-term challenges don’t incorporate these essential steps of social marketing and therefore struggle to maintain a true change in behavior from participants.

D.C. region commuter challenges

In the D.C. metro region alone we see the effects of single day challenges that have the best of intentions but fall short. While the events support local and regional TDM goals and offer incentives, they don’t necessarily set participants up for long-term success. Long-term success would mean a program introduces an element of social norming, which would produce herd mentality and critical mass over time, allowing evaluations to be formed and elements adjusted to changed perception. While short-term events may portray social norming, it’s not realistic to assume a true change in behavior in 24 hours, since most events don’t follow the logic of social norms: identifying an underlying problem, defining an intervention strategy and goal, and even measuring the desired impact post-event.

For example, the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments’ Commuter Connections program sponsors the region wide international Car-Free Day event; however, the challenge this year only amassed 4,517 participants to take the pledge. At the end of the day, a pledge only counts those who fill out an online form and can’t really be tied to traffic fluctuation in the region, since the total isn’t a majority of drivers in the region. In fact, if all pledges were honored, of the 140,000 workers who commute to Arlington, it would only be 3 percent. Not 3 percent of the entire region, 3 percent of commuters to Arlington.

Even the Arlington Transportation Partners-hosted event, National Walking Day, engages less than 1 percent of the at-place employees in Arlington County. This event is marketed more as a wellness and team-building event and less about transportation options and has been effective to engage prospective clients or re-energize existing customers. Similar to other one-day events, this event on its own does not transform thousands into avid walkers.

Perhaps the most well-known single day event in the region, Bike to Work Day, which accumulated over 17,500 participants in May 2016 across D.C., Maryland, and Virginia, only technically impacts 1.3 percent of at-place employees in Arlington. Bike to Work Day effectively spreads the notion of biking due to the overall visibility of the event for both riders and non-participants who may see bike trains, pit stops and more throughout the day.

In terms of sheer participant volume, Bike to Work Day comes closest to accumulating critical mass – but how can we ensure that it translates to new bikers or a sustained number of people using biking as a mode of transportation? In fact, without a definitive plan in place to follow-up and survey participants to see if their new behaviors really stuck, it’s hard to tell long-term impact around these events.

Critical mass & potential reach

Truthfully, that answer is hard. Transportation demand management as a whole can be difficult to measure if hard facts aren’t measured up against the goals, which is why Arlington Transportation Partners changed its measurement of success in 2013 after facing market saturation and constant business turnover. Using CBSM techniques that had proven successful in the utility industry, ATP launched Champions. The Champions program works with employers, multi-family residential communities, schools, and commercial properties to help Arlington-based organizations improve overall benefits and amenities for employees and tenants. The program incorporates the idea that employers were mostly unaware of how their involvement with implementing transportation programs benefited their employees, their organizations, and the greater Arlington County community.

In 2013, ATP recognized 31 Champions, and since the inaugural year, the program has grown to recognize 241 businesses, multi-family residential communities, public schools and commercial properties. In terms of reach to potential Arlington at-place employees, that’s a 12.2 percent population reach. So how did the program build critical mass, and why is this an answer for cities struggling with fleeting interest after an event has expired?

Incorporating short-term programs

The success of Champions wasn’t built overnight, but did incorporate the same single-day efforts outlined above. However, ATP and Champions took what was already working in Arlington County and amplified it with a strategic plan to give employers bite-sized achievable actions that would turn into large accomplishments over a nine-month period. That’s 270 days instead of just one, but single day events like Bike to Work Day and National Walking Day are always great ways to open doors and start the conversation to get employers involved who otherwise aren’t typically interested in transportation. The trick was to then turn that single-day engagement into a year-long commitment.

Social norming and a customer journey of success, paired with national and local recognition, fuels Champions and has been a strong platform to discuss challenging topics like decreasing parking subsidies or setting mode shift goals. Champions doesn’t ask participants to jump major barriers out of the gate, but instead works as a personalized approach to each company’s unique needs and concerns. While Arlington’s overall goal may be the same, Champions allows business and properties to get there in their own way.

With time, similar programs to Champions could help employers increase a transit subsidy for employees, spend less on parking subsidies, form vanpools for commuters outside of the core business district, achieve national recognition for bicycle infrastructure, and more. Of course, the greatest achievement will be for the county, city or jurisdiction through company/employee retention as business communities grow, resulting in improved economic development.

Photo: The intersection of N. Glebe Road and Wilson Boulevard in Arlington’s Ballston neighborhood. (Sam Kittner for Mobility Lab, www.kittner.com)

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Defending multi-modalism – Planetizen http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/05/hopefully-chao-will-recognize-importance-of-transit-biking-walking-in-todays-world-of-transportation/ http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/05/hopefully-chao-will-recognize-importance-of-transit-biking-walking-in-todays-world-of-transportation/#respond Mon, 05 Dec 2016 16:49:51 +0000 http://mobilitylab.org/?p=19684 Conventional transport evaluations overlook many of the key factors that make the case for federal funding of transit, biking, and walking enhancements. Consumer savings, parking congestion, public health, economic development impacts, indirect environmental impacts, and strategic land use are just some of the factors often overlooked from the way the feds assess transportation funding. That’s... Read more »

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Conventional transport evaluations overlook many of the key factors that make the case for federal funding of transit, biking, and walking enhancements.

Consumer savings, parking congestion, public health, economic development impacts, indirect environmental impacts, and strategic land use are just some of the factors often overlooked from the way the feds assess transportation funding.

That’s why it is a little unnerving, according to researcher Todd Litman, to see that President-elect Tump’s choice for transportation secretary is Elaine Chao. At a time when measurement and funding decisions should be improving because of better data collection, Chao’s connection as a fellow at the Heritage Foundation, whose Transportation Policy Recommendations are to eliminate federal funding for anything but highway projects, is an example of the opposite of progress for transportation in the U.S.

Read the complete article at Planetizen

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Today is the day for TDM in San Francisco http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/05/today-is-the-day-for-tdm-in-san-francisco/ http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/05/today-is-the-day-for-tdm-in-san-francisco/#respond Mon, 05 Dec 2016 15:35:43 +0000 http://mobilitylab.org/?p=19680 From Streetsblog SF: Today at 1:30 p.m. PST, the Land Use and Transportation Committee of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors will consider a Transportation Demand Management (TDM) ordinance that will require projects larger than 10 dwelling units or 10,000 square feet to adopt stronger measures to reduce auto trips. The new TDM proposal represents a step forward. However, it... Read more »

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From Streetsblog SF:

Today at 1:30 p.m. PST, the Land Use and Transportation Committee of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors will consider a Transportation Demand Management (TDM) ordinance that will require projects larger than 10 dwelling units or 10,000 square feet to adopt stronger measures to reduce auto trips.

The new TDM proposal represents a step forward. However, it will have greater impact on the livability of San Francisco if it includes four key changes:

  •     Close the parking loophole.
  •     Link building TDM goals to neighborhood goals.
  •     Strengthen pro-walking strategies.
  •     Eliminate parking requirements.

Strengthening this ordinance will help San Francisco build on a history of effective TDM measures.

The bad news is the City continues to undermine TDM goals, with street designs that compromise on the safety of people walking and biking, maintaining minimum parking requirements for buildings in most of the city. The City also allows buses and trains to sit stuck in traffic and it subsidizes public parking. This has to stop.

Read the complete article at Streetsblog San Francisco

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Do bikeshare systems actually work? (They do) http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/02/do-bikeshare-systems-actually-work/ http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/02/do-bikeshare-systems-actually-work/#respond Fri, 02 Dec 2016 16:51:35 +0000 http://mobilitylab.org/?p=19675 Bikeshares benefit their cities in small, varying, and sometimes imperfect ways. Such cautious and incremental gains aren’t the stuff of bold headlines. But they’re small because the idea doesn’t need a complete rethink. Perhaps that’s because the original idea itself was pretty radical. In fact, maybe it’s not really about bikes at all. We get... Read more »

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Bikeshares benefit their cities in small, varying, and sometimes imperfect ways. Such cautious and incremental gains aren’t the stuff of bold headlines. But they’re small because the idea doesn’t need a complete rethink. Perhaps that’s because the original idea itself was pretty radical. In fact, maybe it’s not really about bikes at all. We get excited about emerging technologies like autonomous vehicles (which Uber is pursuing) or Elon Musk’s Hyperloop, but bikeshares are at once a low-tech, low-cost solution that’s available right now. And they have fundamentally altered how people get around a city. In that sense, it’s no less revolutionary than any new technology.

Think about it, says Zoe Kircos of People for Bikes, “How often does a city get to launch an entirely new transportation option?”

Read the complete article at Outside Online

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Why voters said ‘yes’ to public transportation on November 8 http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/01/why-voters-said-yes-to-public-transportation-on-november-8/ http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/01/why-voters-said-yes-to-public-transportation-on-november-8/#respond Thu, 01 Dec 2016 19:52:13 +0000 http://mobilitylab.org/?p=19672 In the wake of Election Day 2016, at least one clear winner has emerged: public transportation. There were a historic number of transit-related funding initiatives on ballots across the nation (49), of which about 70 percent passed. This impressive result means that there will be about $170 billion in new funding for systems that provide... Read more »

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In the wake of Election Day 2016, at least one clear winner has emerged: public transportation. There were a historic number of transit-related funding initiatives on ballots across the nation (49), of which about 70 percent passed. This impressive result means that there will be about $170 billion in new funding for systems that provide Americans with mobility options ranging from commuter and light-rail trains to subways, buses, and other transit services.

Read the complete article at Mass Transit

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Mobility Lab Express #99 http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/01/mobility-lab-express-99/ http://mobilitylab.org/2016/12/01/mobility-lab-express-99/#respond Thu, 01 Dec 2016 15:35:36 +0000 http://mobilitylab.org/?p=19668 Several pieces in this week’s Express touch on the integration of bikeshare and transit, as both useful transportation connectors and how to simplify connections between the two. While fare integration may not happen in the immediate future, any steps – docks near bus stops, discounted passes – that agencies can take to unify the two... Read more »

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Several pieces in this week’s Express touch on the integration of bikeshare and transit, as both useful transportation connectors and how to simplify connections between the two. While fare integration may not happen in the immediate future, any steps – docks near bus stops, discounted passes – that agencies can take to unify the two modes helps form a resilient transportation ecosystem.

 

Also, an ongoing reminder for the D.C. area: registrations for January’s TransportationCamp DC are going fast, so be sure to pick up one here.
Also covered in this edition of the Express: remembering the rising human costs of traffic violence, a call for “common sense cities” before smart ones, and more.

Mobility Lab Express #99

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WMATA’s SelectPass pilot could become permanent, would complement TDM plans http://mobilitylab.org/2016/11/29/wmata-selectpass-permanent-tdm/ http://mobilitylab.org/2016/11/29/wmata-selectpass-permanent-tdm/#respond Tue, 29 Nov 2016 21:54:54 +0000 http://mobilitylab.org/?p=19651 When transit passes are simple, flexible, and useful, the choice to take Metro or bus over other modes becomes that much more clear. In the D.C. region, the Washington Metropolitan Area Transportation Authorityhas been testing a pass structure that does just that, while encouraging extra rides that would essentially be free to passholders. The SelectPass... Read more »

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When transit passes are simple, flexible, and useful, the choice to take Metro or bus over other modes becomes that much more clear.

In the D.C. region, the Washington Metropolitan Area Transportation Authorityhas been testing a pass structure that does just that, while encouraging extra rides that would essentially be free to passholders. The SelectPass program allows riders to pay the cost of their typical Metro commute for 18 trips for the entire month, allowing them to ride for free after those trips.

On Greater Greater Washington, David Alpert and Michael Perkins write that the pass, called SelectPass, is likely soon to become a permanent option for commuters. WMATA has been selling them at almost four-times the rate it sells unlimited rail passes, and almost every user has given the program a high rating. Given its success already, Alpert and Perkins note that SelectPass would fit well within TDM programs:

… Metro could explore building a program to create such passes for other groups, including condo or apartment buildings, employers, and others. When passes are purchased in bulk, the price per pass can be reduced, and everyone is encouraged to use transit.

To get approval for new buildings in many jurisdictions, developers have to prepare Transportation Demand Management plans, where they identify strategies to help residents or workers commute by more efficient means than driving. This often includes Bikeshare memberships, car-sharing memberships, TransitScreens in lobbies, and more. Passes could be a great amenity as well.

In Arlington especially, where multi-family buildings often use transportation amenities to entice new tenants, pre-established SelectPasses that offer riders a recurring deal on Metro trips would be especially attractive.

SelectPass sales, which increased after new price points were introduced. Image from Metro presentation.

SelectPass sales, which increased after new price points were introduced. Image from Metro presentation.

Employer transit benefits, too, are another avenue Albert and Perkins identify for further SelectPass expansion, albeit one with anecdotal reports of difficulties for human-resources departments. As SelectPass joins WMATA’s roster of pass options, the agency will have to establish better resources for employers and jurisdictions to ensure smooth transitions for employees who wish to make it part of their transit benefits.

Ultimately, the added flexibility – the SelectPass pilot program eventually added more payment levels – should be key to meeting rider needs and reasserting the usefulness of transit.

Further reading:
Looking more broadly to new technologies and pass structures, TransitCenter recently put forth an idea for MTA in New York City, which is planning to replace the magnetic strip MetroCard system. It cited Transport for London’s “capping” pass structure, wherein once the total number of rides per week equals the price of a weekly pass, the system credits back the money spent over that mark. TransitCenter notes that this system is a good option for low-income riders who often do not have the money on hand to pay for an entire monthly pass up front.

Photo, top: A SmarTrip card in action (Sam Kittner for Mobility Lab, www.kittner.com).

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